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【环境讲坛67期】High-Throughput Capacitive Deionization Using Hierarchical Porous Carbo(整体纳米碳高效电容除盐的原理与设计)

来源:    发布时间:2018-04-19    点击次数:

报告人:  那崇峥

报告时间:2018419 10:00

报告地点:二楼报告厅

联系人:  胡云行

 

报告摘要:

Deionization, also known as desalination, is an important water treatment process with a primary objective to reduce the concentration of dissolved solids (i.e., ions) in water. Deionization has wide applications in clean water supplies as well as wastewater reuse and disposal for municipality, industry, agriculture and individual consumers. Presently, deionization is mainly performed by membrane-based technologies such as reverse osmosis and electrodialysis, which require extensive pretreatment and fouling control with limited tolerance on temperature, pH, and salinity variations. Capacitive deionization (CDI) is a membrane-free desalination technology, which uses porous carbon electrodes to adsorb ions from water under an electrical field established by a direct-current potential, which has the potential to solve all the technical challenges associated with the use of semi-permeable membranes. CDI was first proposed in 1960; however, after nearly 70 years of R&D, CDI has not been developed into a technology that can compete with reverse osmosis and electrodialysis on capital cost, energy use, or treatment performance. In this presentation, I will show that the lack of progress is caused by misguided efforts to improve adsorption capacity while slow kinetics is the limiting factor (cf. Figure 1). Guided by this new insight, my research group has recently designed integrated electrodes using hierarchical porous carbon (HPC) consisting of a hierarchical structure connecting macroscopic pores to microscopic ones. Using HPC, we have designed the world’s first high-throughput CDI system, which can desalinate brackish water to drinking water at a permeate flux greater than 1 mm s-1 and an energy cost less than 0.5 kwh m-3, comparable to the standard reverse osmosis. The successful design of high-throughput CDI has made a transformative leap for membrane-free desalination R&D.

  脱盐(也称淡化)是一类重要的水处理工艺,其主要设计目标为降低水中溶解固体(即离子)的浓度。脱盐在饮用水净化以及市政、工业、农业和个人用户的废水再利用等方面应用广泛,目前主要通过反渗透和电渗析等膜基技术进行。这些技术的实施需要完善的预处理以及对温度、酸碱度和结垢成分的控制。电容除盐是一种利用多孔碳电极在直流电场下吸附离子的无膜脱盐技术,故有潜力解决所有与半透膜相关的脱盐技术难题。但是,自1960年被首次提出以来,电容除盐在设备投资、能源使用和处理性能上一直未能缩小与膜技术的差距。在本次报告中,我将通过对文献数据的总结分析来充分论证,过去电容除盐研发的失败源自对原理理解的严重偏差,即在电容除盐的性能瓶颈为缓慢的吸附动力学的条件下,把提高热力学吸附量错误地作为了研发核心(参见图1)。在这个全新认识的指导下,我的研究小组设计出了具有有序结构的多孔集成纳米碳电极;并在此基础上,制造出了世界上第一台高效电容除盐系统。该系统具有大于1微米每秒以上的渗透通量和小于0.5千瓦时每立方米的操作能耗,可以在与反渗透相当的条件下将苦咸水淡化成饮用水
高效电容除盐系统的成功设计为无膜脱盐的研究揭开了新的一页。

 

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                                                                  Figure 1. Performance of existing CDI devices.

报告人简介:

Chongzheng Na obtained his bachelor’s, master’s, and Ph.D. degrees from Tsinghua University (China), Pennsylvania State University, and the University of Michigan, all in Environmental Engineering. He was further trained in Environmental Chemistry as a postdoctoral fellow at Harvard University. Before joining Texas Tech University as an associate professor, he was an assistant professor at the University of Notre Dame in Indiana. At Texas Tech University, his teaching and research focus on developing innovative solutions of environmental challenges using nanomaterials.
  
  那崇峥博士拥有
清华大学的环境工程学士学位,美国宾州立大学的环境工程硕士学位,和美国密歇根大学的环境工程博士学位。在美国哈佛大学进行了博士后研究以后,那博士首先在美国圣母大学任助理教授。现为德州理工大学副教授,致力于环境纳米技术的教学与研究。

 

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